In the area of the Reserve of the Biosphere, border area, eccentric, and far from major population centers of the two countries, the man, from pre-and proto-historical techniques perfected in the agricultural and pasture that allowed the exploration of natural resources in a rational way, thus ensuring its survival from the balance between human activity and the natural environment. This situation allowed, until today, the maintenance of a natural and cultural heritage of exceptional value and unique. Social organization was based on two pillars: the abundance of labor, and strong inter-relationship in the performance of the work, the only way to keep grazing systems, and invest in the conservation efforts of the traditional farm structures, or support of community practices in the management of space. The breakdown of the traditional system mentioned, coupled with the demographic vacuum resulting from the inevitable attraction of large cities, require a rethinking of management and land uses, but also to the protection of heritage of these highlands. The area proposed as a Biosphere Reserve, has been the subject of ancient human occupation, from proto-historic times to the present day. Are still easily megalithic remains, Celts, Romans, and of course, medieval, attesting an ancient and organized use of space, making use of time and from time immemorial of geographical or community boundary.